The Culinary & Kitchen Specialists

How to Test Water Hardness at Home in 5 Excellent Tips: Sign, Formation, Measurement



How to Test Water Hardness at Home


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Do you ever wonder why your hair feels dry and brittle even after using expensive shampoos? Or why your glassware come out of the dishwasher with streaks and spots? The culprit might just be the water running through your taps. Water hardness, caused by an excess of minerals like calcium and magnesium, can wreak havoc on your daily routines without you even realizing it. But fear not!

Water hardness is a measure of the dissolved minerals in the water. These minerals can come from the earth, rocks, or pipes that carry the water. While most of us think of water hardness as a bad thing, it can be beneficial in some cases. 

The higher the mineral content, the more complex the water will be. While most people don’t need to worry about the hardness of their water, those who do should test their water to find out how much calcium and magnesium are present.

There are several ways to test water hardness at home. You can test water hardness at home with a simple kit, and it only takes a few minutes. By testing your water, you can ensure that you’re taking the necessary steps to protect your home and appliances. In this article we will discuss in detail how to test water hardness at home.

What is Hard Water?

Water is an essential part of life, and keeping hydrated is crucial for your health. One factor that affects water quality is its hardness. Hard water contains high minerals like calcium and magnesium, whereas soft water has low levels. While hard water isn’t necessarily harmful to your health, it can cause problems in your home. 

These minerals can cause all sorts of problems in both residential and commercial settings. In fact, according to the Water Quality Association, up to 85% of water-related issues in buildings are caused by hard water. 

For example, hard water can cause scale buildup on your faucets, pipes, and appliances. It can also make it difficult to lather soap and rinse off shampoo, which can lead to a buildup of dirt and soap scum in your shower or bathtub.

The formation of hard water

Water that contains high minerals, especially calcium and magnesium, is called hard water. When water passes through the soil, it forms naturally and dissolves with these minerals.

Most of the world’s water is hard. The rain and snow that fall from the sky are only soft. High levels of calcium and magnesium in water produce hard water. These minerals dissolve with water rain and make their way to the groundwater. As water moves through our soil, it dissolves with minerals, causing it to harden. This mineral dissolved water flows over rocks and through underground reservoirs.

This water flows through the soil and joins rivers and reservoirs. Then it reaches a wetland, a complicated and lengthy process. The hard water produced due to this process comes to our homes through pipes.

For water to be hard, it must pass through soil rich in calcium carbonate and magnesium. It typically means chalk or limestone. The higher the concentration of these minerals, the harder the water will be.

How to test hard water at home

If you’re not sure whether you have hard water, there are a few ways to test at home. You can quickly test your water at home to see if it’s hard. For your convenience, we will discuss 5 methods. You can do the test that is possible for you sitting at home.

1. Hard water testing kit

When it comes to water quality, homeowners need to test their water for contaminants and pollutants. Luckily, several water test kits are available on the market, making it easy for homeowners to test their water at home. Three of the most common water test kits are water test strips, colour disk kits, and digital testing kits. It is widespread to test with water test strips. You can quickly check it at home.

Hard water test kit
Hard water test kit

Water test strips are probably the most common type of water testing kit. They are easy to use and can provide quick results. With water test strips, you dip the strip into a sample of water and wait a few seconds for the strip to change colour. The colours on the strip will indicate whether or not the water contains specific contaminants or pollutants. If colour appears, the sample tested positive for that particular contaminant.

To get the most accurate results from any water test strip, you should ensure that the tested sample is entirely still and free of any bubbles or sediment. And we recommend JNW Direct Pool and Spa Test Strips for better experience.

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2. Testing with litmus paper

It is a simple and affordable way to get an idea of the hardness of your water and whether or not you need to take any steps to soften it. Litmus paper is a great way to test for hard water. It is easy to use and can be done at home. You can buy litmus paper online or at most hardware stores. And we recommend Litmus Test Paper 240 Strips at an affordable price.

Litmus paper test for water
Litmus paper test for water

To use litmus paper, dip it into a glass of water and wait a few seconds to change colour. The colour will indicate the level of acidity or alkalinity in the water. If it turns red, then the water is hard. If it stays blue, then the water is soft. This test can help you decide if you need a water softener in your home.

3. Testing with aquarium kit

All you need to test your water hardness is an aquarium kit and a few drops of your water sample. Most aquarium kits come with test strips that you dip into your water sample. The test strip will change colour based on the calcium and magnesium ions concentration in the water. You can then use the colour chart with the kit to determine your water hardness level.

Aquariums need to have a specific carbonate hardness (KH) to maintain the pH at a stable level and keep the water from becoming too acidic. Regular tap water has a general hardness (GH) that you can test at home. However, aquariums require a different test for KH. 

Luckily, testing for KH is just as easy as testing GH. All you need is a test kit and some water from your tank. The test kit will come with instructions on how to use it, but generally, add drops of water to a vial and let it sit until the colour changes. Then you compare the colour against a chart to determine the KH level. 

To test your aquarium’s water hardness, you will need a test kit that measures GH and KH explicitly. These kits are available at most pet stores. You can also buy them online API Water Test Kit

4. Using soap to water hardness check

If you’re not sure if your water is hard or not, there’s an easy way to test it at home. You can test the water hardness in your home by using a bar of soap or liquid soap. Fill a bottle one-third full of water, add a few drops of pure liquid soap, & let it sit for about 15 minutes. Shake the bottle firmly for a few seconds, and if there’s a distinct lack of fluffy bubbles, your water is hard. You can also use this method to test how much soap is needed to get the desired suds level.

Soap test for hard water
Soap test for hard water

If the soap suds up, the water is hard. If the soap is not sud up, the water is soft.

5. Check with Your City or Water supplier.

In most cases, you should receive a yearly consumer confidence report (CCR) from your water supplier by July 1. This report details where your water comes from and how it was treated. It can also help you test water hardness at home. Reading your CCR is an excellent way to stay informed about your water quality and safety.

How is Water Hardness Measured?

Water hardness is a measure of the dissolved minerals in the water. The most common measure of water hardness is grains per gallon (g). However, some laboratories use milligrams per Liter (mg/L), or parts per million (ppm). Water hardness is a measure of the dissolved minerals in the water. The most common measure of water hardness is grains per gallon (gpg).

1. Parts per million

Parts per million (ppm) is a common way of measuring water hardness. In ppm, water hardness is defined as the number of parts of calcium carbonate in 1 million parts of water. The higher the ppm number, the more complex the water. Hard water can cause problems in both industrial and residential settings. In industry, the scale can build up on equipment, leading to decreased efficiency and increased maintenance costs.

Water hardness is a measure of the concentration of minerals in the water. The most common mineral in water is calcium carbonate (CACO3), so water hardness is typically measured in parts per million of CACO3. Water with less than 50 ppm of calcium carbonate is considered soft, while water with over 200 ppm is considered hard. Water hardness can affect the taste and feel of the water, and it can also affect how well soap works. In some cases, water hardness can cause scaling or buildup on fixtures or appliances.

2. Milligrams per Liter

Water hardness is a measure of the dissolved minerals in a water sample. The most common way to measure water hardness is in milligrams per Liter (mg/L). There are several scales for measuring water hardness, but the mg/L scale is the most common. The higher the mg/L number, the harder the water. Water that is too hard can cause scaling and cloudy water.

3. Grains per gallon

Grains per gallon (GPG) is a water hardness measure used to determine the amount of calcium and magnesium in a given volume of water. Knowing your water’s GPG can help you choose the right grain-based water softener, as well as give you an idea of how much soap and detergent to use when cleaning. In this guide, we’ll go over the basics of GPG and provide a detailed breakdown of how to calculate it.

How to Interpret the Water Hardness Testing Results

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses the following scale to determine the hardness of the water:

1. Grains per Gallon

<1 gpg Very soft: Water contains very little calcium and magnesium ions.

1-3 gpg soft: Water contains very slightly more calcium and magnesium ions

4-6 gpg Soft: Water contains moderate amounts of calcium and magnesium ions. 

7-10 gpg Moderately hard: Water contains significant amounts of calcium and magnesium ions. 11-15 Hard Water has high levels of calcium and magnesium ions. 16-30 very hard water contains exceptionally high calcium and magnesium ions levels. >30 Extremely hard Water is saturated with calcium and magnesium ions to the extent that no more can dissolve without causing a precipitate (solid) to form.

2. Parts per Million 

  • Less than 0-17 mg/L is considered soft
  • Between 17 to 60 mg/L is deemed to be slightly Hard
  • Between 60 to 120 mg/L is deemed to be medium-hard
  • Between 120 to 180 mg/L is thought hard
  • More than 180 mg/L is believed to be very & extremely hard
Hardness levelGrains per Gallon (GPG)Parts per Million (PPM) & mg/L
Vey Soft<1
Slightly Hard4-617-60
Moderately Hard7-1060-120
Extremely Hard15-30+180
Water Hardness Testing Results by Grivic

What to do About Hard Water

1. Water Softener

If you have hard water, installing a water softener can be a great way to improve your quality of life. Water softeners work by installing in the plumbing area and help to remove the minerals that cause hard water. Many people install their water softener in the attic, garage or even a closet dedicated to the system. If you are unsure where to install your water softener, consult with a professional. They will be able to help you choose the best spot and get your system up and running in no time. We like to recommend you a best water softener AquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter.

Water softener for hard water
Water softener for hard water

2. Kitchen faucet

Another option, if you have hard water, is using a faucet that can help improve its quality. Hard water is water that has high mineral content. It can cause problems like scale buildup on pipes and appliances. It can also make it difficult to get a good lather when bathing or washing dishes. A faucet is a device that installs your kitchen sink. The kitchen faucet helps to soften the water as it comes out. You can use a filter on the faucet to prevent hard water, and it is also beneficial to soften the water.

Common Signs of Hard Water

1. Check your showers faucet.

Suppose you’ve been noticing a buildup of lime or calcium deposits on your shower head, faucet, or any other plumbing fixtures in your home. In that case, you likely have hard water. Hard water generally refers to water with a high mineral content that can cause buildup and scale on pipes, fixtures, and other surfaces.

Hard water stains on faucet
Hard water stains on faucet

2. Checking your dishes

Hard water may be the reason your dishes and utensils appear to be dirtier than usual. If you encounter white spots on your dishes and silverware, that is likely an indication of hard water. It is caused by high minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium, in the water. These minerals can cause various problems, including spots on dishes & glassware.

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3. Checking your clothes

One sign is mineral deposits left on your clothes after they’re washed. These deposits can cause soiling to build upon your clothes, making them look dingy and grey. Your whites may not stay white for very long. Hard water can cause the fabric to become discoloured and brittle, making it more susceptible to staining.

4. Your skin feels dry and itchy.

The most common effect of hard water on your skin is dryness and itchiness. If you have hard water, you may notice that your skin feels drier and itchier than usual. And that you’re more likely to experience skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis.

5. Check your coffee pot

The calcium and magnesium ions in hard water can cause scale to form on the heating element of your coffee pot. You should be able to see a white or brownish film on the inside of your coffee pot. This scale can reduce the element’s effectiveness, causing it to take longer to heat the water and make coffee. The scale can also clog the filters in your coffee pot, making it more challenging to brew a cup of coffee. If you notice that your coffee is taking longer than usual to brew or that it tastes a bit off, it may be because you have hard water.

6. Strong Stains in sinks and tubs

Hard water has minerals that can leave behind white or brown spots or streaks on sinks, bathtubs and other surfaces where the water dries. In addition to being unsightly, these stains can also signify that you have hard water. These stains can be yellow, brown, or black in color, and they will usually accumulate around the drain or faucet. In severe cases, the deposits can form a thick scale that can be difficult to remove.

Hard water stains on sink
Hard water stains on sink

7. Hair Test

If you experience any of the following symptoms, it may be due to hard water. Dry hair is often one of the common signs of hard water. Over time, the minerals in hard water can damage hair, leading to breakage and hair loss. Hard water can also make it difficult to get a good lather when shampooing, which can strip your hair of its natural oils and lead to further dryness.

8. Higher electricity bills

If your energy bills have been on the rise inexplicably, one possible explanation is that you have hard water. Hard water contains high levels of minerals, most notably calcium and magnesium. These minerals can clog pipes and lower the efficiency of your water heater. In extreme cases, they can even damage appliances.

There are several signs that you might have hard water. One of the most obvious is an increase in your energy bills. It is because hard water requires more energy to heat up and move through pipes. Another sign is scale buildup on your faucets, fixtures, or appliances. Scale is a complex, crusty deposit that forms when minerals in the water react. It can be challenging to remove and can lead to corrosion and leaks.

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FAQ regarding hard water

How do I know if my water is safe to drink?

You can check if your water is safe to drink by looking at the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) website. The EPA has a list of drinking water contaminants and their health effects. Suppose your water is not on the list. In that case, it is still recommended that you contact your local water authority to find out about your specific water source.

Is hard water bad for your health?

There is no evidence that hard water is bad for your health. Some studies suggest that drinking hard water may be beneficial. It can help improve blood cholesterol levels and lower the risk of heart disease.

Is Softened Water Salty?

No, softened water is not salty. It is often recommended for people with sensitive skin because it is less harsh than regular tap water.

Does hard water taste bad?

No, hard water doesn’t taste bad. It often has a slightly mineral flavour that some people enjoy.

Does vinegar soften water?

Yes, vinegar can soften water. Vinegar is a weak acid, and, as such, it can dissolve some of the minerals that make water hard. It can help to soften the water and make it more pleasant to drink. However, vinegar will not remove all of the hardness from water. It may not be effective in softening extremely hard water.

Are home water test kits accurate?

Yes, home water test kits are accurate. They are a great way to test your water for common contaminants like lead, copper, and chlorine.


Regular water hardness testing is crucial for maintaining the overall quality of your water supply. By understanding the mineral content in your water, you can make informed decisions about the appropriate treatment methods to ensure that your water is safe and healthy. Additionally, regular testing can help you mitigate potential issues such as limescale buildup in pipes and appliances, which can lead to costly repairs and decreased efficiency over time.

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